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Friday, 27.04.2018

SOUTH AMERICA , southern continent of the Western Hemisphere between the Pacific ca. in the west and the Atlantic ca. to the east, the Caribbean and am in the north of Magellan Strait. in the south of 12 ° 28 '. sh. to 53 ° 55 'lat. sh. Connected to the Isthmus of Panama from North. America. The area of the islands [arch. Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Islands, Galapagos, etc.] 18.28 million km2. The maximum length of 7150 km and 5100 km wide. In the relief allocated a powerful mountain belt of the Andes (Aconcagua, 6,960 m) in the north and west and the platform, relatively flat plains and the east. Plateaus correspond to the raised platform Guiana (city Neblina, 3014 m) in north-east and the Brazilian (Mr. Bandeira, 2890 m) in the east, separated by a trough occupied by the Amazon (Amazonia). At the boundary between the basins and foothills, plateaus, and the Andes are plains and lowlands: the Orinoco and the inland plains (the Pantanal, the Gran Chaco, Entre Rios and Pampa) to the south, south-east, rising to 2,200 m plateau of Patagonia. On the plateau there are large deposits of iron and manganese ore, bauxite, nonferrous and rare metals in the foothills and intermontane basins of the Andes - oil and gas in the mountains - the deposit of copper ore, base metals, tin, etc. The climate is mostly tropical and sub-equatorial, in the Amazon - equatorial, constantly moist in the South - subtropical and temperate. The whole northern plain of the South. America to the southern tropic has average temperatures 20-28 ° C. In summer (January), they are reduced to the south to 10 ° C in winter (July) in the Brazilian highlands to 12 ° C, in Pampa to 6 ° C, a plateau of Patagonia to 1 ° C and below. Most rain in a year receive the windward slopes of the Andes in Colombia and South. Chile (5-10 thousand mm), Zap. Amazonia and adjacent slopes of the Andes, the eastern slopes of the Guiana and Brazilian Highlands (2-3 thousand mm), the rest of the east to 35 ° south. sh. falls in the year 1-2 thousand mm. Arid (150-200 mm or less) area to the west of Pampa, Patagonia, South Centre. Andes and the Pacific slope especially between 5-27 ° S lat. sh. Most of the rivers belong to the Atlantic basin approx.; Most - the Amazon, Paraná, with Paraguay, Orinoco. River rapids and plateaus, as in the Andes, are rich in hydropower. In the lowlands the major rivers are navigable. The soil cover in the hot zone is dominated by laterite (ferralitic and ferritic) red-soil types in the subtropics - a reddish-black, and gray-brown in the middle latitudes - brown (the forest in the west and the semi-desert in the east). Amazonia, the eastern slopes of the plateaus and the Andes (18 ° lat. Lat.) Covered with evergreen humid equatorial and tropical forests with valuable species of trees (Hevea rubber plant, redwood, cocoa, hinnoe, etc.), on the other plains and plateaus - and savannas woodlands and in the subtropics - prairies, steppes and deserts, in the temperate zone to the west - mixed evergreen forest mixed with deciduous - in the East semi-desert shrub. Very rich and peculiar fauna of South. America belongs to the neotropical region of Neogene and features a large number of endemics: sloths, anteaters, armadillos, monkeys platyrrhine, puma, jaguar, peccary, nutria, guinea pigs, etc. The birds - rhea, goatsin, toucans and other diverse fauna of reptiles, fish and of insects. On the territory of South. America are and Tobago , Uruguay , French Guiana , Chile , Ecuador .
Category: United States | Views: 2949 | Added by: Dvani | Tags: THE CITY OF AMERICA LARGEST CITIES | Rating: 0.0/0
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